My latest WIP has a woman doctor and while researching to not only find out about women doctor's in the late 1800's I've had to discover a little about medicine at that time.
One good source has been the book "Pioneer Doctor: The Story of a Woman's Work" by Mari Grana. This is a story of the author's grandmother who became a doctor in 1890 and first worked in the Montana mining country. The book describes some of the doctoring practices. The one that caught my attention and I had to look it up was the use of "adhesive bandages" for broken bones. That seemed too modern. Come to find out they were using "adhesive" bandages made of cotton bandages with plaster of Paris rubbed into the weave in 1851. A Dutch doctor first started using that method even though they had been pouring the liquid plaster into wooden boxes built around the legs for a while.
I couldn't find a photo to copy so go here and see a pretty good photo of a bag and some contents.
In some instances the doctor would have two bags. One for regular medical care and one filled with the necessary equipment for birthing. Here is just a brief list of contents that could be in a doctor's bag in the late 1800's.
Obstetrical tools (some of these were pretty horrendous looking)
Peroxide of hydrogen
Clean rolls of bandage
And the list could go on. The physicians of the 1800's and early 1900's had to carry practically their whole practice with them in order to be ready for whatever they found at the end of their sometimes long ride or late night summons.